The classification of rare earth deposits in China is characterized by rare earth deposits and rare earth deposits. A classification scheme for rare and rare earth deposits, such as the China deposit (volume). The type of deposit which is mainly of rare earth and has industrial significance is introduced as follows:
1. Baiyun ebo type iron - niobium and rare earth deposit.
This is a special type has unique super rare earth ore deposit, with its huge scale, abundant, cerium rare earth is famous in the world high grade, the family has great economic value, is China's largest production base of rare earth mineral raw materials. Its genetic type divided opinions vary, such as special high temperature hydrothermal said, sedimentary metamorphic hydrothermal metasomatic says, magma carbonate rock, volcanic rock carbonate sedimentary says, layer control, hot brine and compound genesis said, etc. The geological characteristics of this type deposit will be briefly introduced in typical mining areas.
2. Granite type niobium and rare earth deposit.
The type is a magmatic deposit related to granite rocks, mainly distributed in southern jiangxi, northern guangdong and southern hunan, and guidong area, such as the granites of yttrium niobium. Alkaline granite type rare earth deposits are mainly distributed in the eastern part of western sichuan and Inner Mongolia. Granite type rare earth deposits are characterized by large reserves, stable grade and a good prospect. However, low grade and fine mineral particle size have not been exploited on a large scale. However on the development of the weathering crust deposit and formation of the alluvial placer, coastal placer, easy, easy industrial significance, the fifties and sixties has of these placer mining monazite, phosphorus, niobium, tantalum yttrium ore iron ore, zircon and British rare earth, rare elements and mineral raw materials.
3. Granite pegmatite rare earth deposit.
China granite pegmatite is mainly rich in rare elements such as lithium, beryllium and tantalum, which is rich in rare earth elements, and only found in jiangxi province is rare earth - niobium tantalum-lithium pegmatite deposit. This type of deposit is characterized by high rare earth grade, large mineral particle size and easy to choose, but limited in scale and suitable for local exploitation.
4. Rare earth fluorocarbon hydrothermal vein type deposit.
This type is an independent light rare earth deposit, which is of great economic value, and is one of the major types of foreign rare earth minerals, such as the famous large scale fluorocarbon-cerium mine in the United States. China has already explored the rare earth deposits (large scale) of mianning yak ping in sichuan province and the rare earth deposit (medium) in xiashan lake, shandong. This type of ore deposit is often associated with alkaline intrusive rocks, the formation of larger scale, rare earth taste rich, main ore mineral is bastnaesite, rich lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and other elements, minerals disseminated extent is big, easy ore type. These two deposits have been exploited, and the economic and social benefits are considerable.
5. Niobium and rare earth orthoclase - carbonate deposits.
This type of deposit is also one of the main types of rare earth deposits. It has the characteristics of large scale, common and associated components, and has comprehensive utilization value. The main ore minerals are mainly cerium rare earth. There are monazite, fluorocarbon deposit, fluorocarbon calcium deposit, and niobium mineral has burnt green stone, niobite, niobium iron rutile and so on. In the south slope of the eastern section of qinling mountains, hubei zhushan temple, which has been explored in hubei and shaanxi, is a large niobium rare earth deposit. It has proved that the light rare earth oxide is 1215,000 t, and the nb 9295 million t is still to be exploited and utilized.
6. Chemical sedimentary type containing rare earth phosphate rock deposit.
In chemical sedimentary deposits, independent rare earth deposits have not been found in China. The rare earth elements are only used as the associated components in some phosphate deposits, bauxite beds and iron ore beds, and have the value of comprehensive recovery and utilization. Of rare earth elements in the phosphate rock mainly in the form of class quality with like occurrence in collophanite or microcrystalline apatite, rare earth content and the main elements of phosphorus content has a close relationship, the highest content of up to 0.3%, and the family of yttrium rare earths tend to have higher proportion. In the early 1970s, the exploration of guizhou zhijin county xinhua phosphate deposit, the discovered rare earth oxide reserves have reached the scale of large deposits, of which yttrium has a 1/3 of the total reserves. At present, the phosphate mine has been mined, and the rare earth mine is used for comprehensive recovery and utilization.
7. Sedimentary metamorphic niobium, rare earth, phosphate deposit.
This type is a metamorphic deposit discovered in recent years, distributed in northern gansu and western Inner Mongolia. The deposit occurs in the Precambrian marble. The ore minerals mainly include niobium, niobite, ferruginite, monazite, apatite, etc. The scale of the deposit is large, with niobium as the main, rare earth and phosphorus can be recycled and utilized, which has potential industrial significance.
8. Mixed rock type rare earth deposits.
This rare earth deposit is a mixed rock or mixed rock granite containing monazite and yttrium. Since the 1970s, mineralization zones and deposits have been discovered in guangdong, liaoning and Inner Mongolia. Such as the five and containing rare earth mixed deposits of guangdong, liaoning WengQuan groove of migmatization metasomatism iron boron type rare earth ore deposit, Inner Mongolia ural mountain - JiNing area granite gneiss or mixture of the high concentration of rare earth elements in the rock, possible to find mixed rock type rare earths mineral deposits. The ore minerals of this deposit are mainly monazite, yttrium, brown epidote and zircon, etc., and the mixed rocks in liaoning include cerium borosilicite. The mixed rock type rare earth deposit is generally large, especially the weathering crust deposit and the beach placer of mixed rock type rare earth deposit in the south.
9. Weathering crust rare earth deposits.
This kind of deposit is widely distributed in the granite type, mixed rock type rare earth deposit in nanling and fujian, and the region with rare rare earth volcanic rocks. According to the occurrence of rare earth elements, the weathering crust deposit is divided into single mineral type and ionic adsorption type.
The rare earth elements of a single mineral weathering shell deposit are mainly in the form of rare earth minerals, whose industrial mineral species are determined by their original rocks. Some of them are dominated by the brown yttrium niobium mine, such as the weathered crust granite in the three counties of hunan and guangxi. Some of them are mainly phosphor and monazite. The ore - bearing rock is ore - bearing granite and mixed rock. This kind of deposit is easy to choose and has become the main source of raw materials for rare earth, especially heavy rare earth.
Ion adsorption weathering crust rare earth deposit is a new type of rare earth deposit. The rare earth elements are adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals, and the extraction process is simple, and the mining is easy. It has become the main source of rare earth and rare earth extraction in China. This kind of deposit is widely distributed in the south of China, and the economic and social benefits of this kind of deposit are remarkable.
10. Monazite, phosphorous yttrium alluvial placer and beach placer.
The fourth series of alluvial deposits in east China, central south and southwestern yunnan are scattered with monazite and yttrium ore deposits. Its original rock is ore bearing granite and mixed rock, and the concentration degree and grade of placer are becoming rich with the new geomorphic unit. The deposit is small, but easy to choose, suitable for edge mining, easy to use economic benefits. The beach placer is larger than alluvial placer and is easy to be selected and has great economic value. Mainly distributed in guangdong, hainan, Taiwan and other coastal areas. The ore body is deposited in the quaternary fine grained quartz sand. The main minerals are ilmenite, rutile, zircon, monazite and yttrium, etc., which can be comprehensively developed and recycled.
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