Rare earth nanomaterials and its application has become a hot spot of current, the reason for this is that the material collection of rare earth properties and nanoscale features at an organic whole, certainly expect to create not rare earth nanomaterials and nano materials do not have the excellent comprehensive properties, its application prospect. There are many kinds of rare earth nanomaterials and their applications are very wide. The main points are as follows:
1. Rare earth compound nano powder.
Rare earth compound nano-powder is an important part of rare earth nanomaterials. It is both a new material and a raw material for preparing new materials. The preparation and physical properties of various rare earth nano-compounds were studied in China. On various preparation methods such as sol gel method, alkoxide method, complexation precipitation method, homogeneous precipitation method, hydrothermal method, hydrolysis method, thermal decomposition method to carry out the research, has been able to preparation of the various single rare earth oxides and some rare earth compounds such as Y203 - Zr02, ABO3 type, AB204, A2B207 compounds, such as and studied in detail. It has been able to produce the Y, La, Ce and Tb series of nano powders with purity up to 99.999% and particle size between 10-50nm.
2. Rare earth nano-luminescent materials.
Excellent optical properties of rare earth doped inorganic nanomaterials, such as long fluorescence lifetime, spectral line width, tunable fluorescence emission wavelength, etc.) and its potential application in such aspects as the fluorescent marker, has attracted the attention of scholars both at home and abroad, is expected to become the alternative molecular probe of a new generation of fluorescent biomarkers materials.
3. Rare earth nano-ceramic materials.
ZrO2 with rare earth is a kind of widely used ceramic material, adding Y2O3, CeO2 or La2O3 and other rare earth elements to prevent ZrO2 high temperature phase change and brittle, and produce ZrO2 phase change toughened ceramic structure material. The nanometer Y2O3-ZrO2 ceramics has high strength and toughness, which can be used as cutting tools and corrosion resistant parts, which can be made into ceramic engine parts. Used in fuel cells as solid electrolytes.
4. Rare earth elements and their compounds have been used in catalysis.
Because the nanoparticles are especially large, the surface can be large and the active position is increased, which undoubtedly has a stronger catalytic effect. Therefore, the use of nano-rare earth materials as catalysts has been paid more attention. As a catalyst for purifying automobile exhaust, rare earth has an irreplaceable role, and it is currently developing an all-rare earth vehicle exhaust purification catalyst to reduce costs and eliminate environmental pollution.
5. Rare earth compound nano film.
The nano-films of rare earth compounds can be divided into two categories: rare earth complexes nano films and rare earth oxide nano-films. Rare earth organic complexes has excellent luminous property, but its poor thermal stability and light stability limit their application, using the sol gel method will be introduced to the rare earth complexes of organic - inorganic interpenetrating network, not only can solve the problem of stability and dispersion of the nanoparticles, and made processing performance is good and has the function of the nature of film. A variety of organic-inorganic nano-hybrid films with rare earth complexes have been made. They not only have good luminescence properties, but also have good processing properties, and are expected to be used in electroluminescent films.
6. Rare earth nano-magnetic materials.
Rare earth nanometer magnetic material of the current research direction is to seek new rare earth permanent magnet material, on the other hand is to develop composite rare earth permanent magnet materials, usually the saturation magnetization of soft magnetic material strength higher than that of permanent magnetic material, the permanent magnet magnetocrystalline anisotropy and far higher than that of soft magnetic materials, such as the soft magnetic phase, be performed within the nanoscale composite permanent magnet, it is possible to obtain has the advantages of both high saturation magnetization, high coercive force of new rare earth permanent magnet materials. At present, the composite magnet with the combination of hard magnet and soft magnet has been developed, and the maximum magnetic energy product reaches 125MGOe, which is about twice the theoretical value of NdFeB magnet (64MGOe). The composite magnets is the thickness of 2.4 nm Sm2Fe17N3 (hard magnetic) with the thickness of 9 nm Fe65Co35 (soft magnet) interaction composite interphase and multilayer film, made of amorphous alloy rapid cooling solidification, then through precipitation heat treatment method of nanocrystals. Fe3b-nd2fe14b nanocomposite bond magnets have been prepared.
7. Rare earth nano-optical materials.
CeO2 with high refractive index and high stability, nanometer CeO2 thin films can be used for the preparation of all kinds of optical thin films, such as rechargeable batteries of reflective film, also can do all kinds of coating, protective film, and beamsplitters. The average thickness of the film is only 30~60nm, which can prevent the fog from forming on the car glass.
The light that causes damage to the skin in the sun is UVB (280 ~ 320nm) and UVA (320 ~ 400nm). Them to the skin damage is cumulative and irreversible, can lead to skin cancer CeO2 nanoparticles worldwide in 300 ~ 450 nm wide absorption band, and as the particle size decreases, and the absorption band redshift, to absorb ultraviolet light has a good performance, can be used for the preparation of ultraviolet absorption materials. CeO2 has been used in sunscreens abroad. Nano CeO2 is a better uv absorber than the commonly used TiO2.
Summary: rare earth nanomaterials are the main research direction of rare earth materials. Research institutions and enterprises are devoting resources to research. China is the most abundant rare earth resource in the world, and it will have a broad application prospect in the research and development of rare earth nanotechnology and its application in various industries.
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