When integrated circuit instead of tube and the early stages of the semiconductor transistor, the 1959 American Nobel Prize winners, Charlie Feynman (Richard Phillips Feynman), California institute of technology in the United States at the annual meeting of the American physical prediction: "if people can in atomic/molecular scale up processing materials, manufacturing equipment, there will be many exciting new discoveries, people will open a whole new world." Today, feynman's prophecy has come true, and this is the nano technology that is now sweeping the world.
Nanotechnology refers to the study of the inherent laws and characteristics of electrons, atoms and molecules within a range of 0.1-100 nanometers, and is used to create a new comprehensive science and technology for various substances. One nanometer is one billionth of a meter, so tiny space is actually the basic unit of matter, the space of atoms and molecules. When materials are "crushed" to nano-sized "nanomaterials", they are not only changed by light, electricity, heat and magnetism, but also have many new features such as radiation, absorption and adsorption. Since the early 1980 s, after the invention of electronic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the world was born in unit in the little world of the research subject, nano science, into the 90 s, nanoscience get rapid development, the nano material, nano chemical science, mechanics, nano biology and so on, the resulting nanotechnology products also emerge in endlessly, and began to involved in automotive industry.
Nanotechnology is the core technology of automobile development. Nanotechnology can be applied from car bodies to wheels, almost all of them. The wide application of nanotechnology in automobiles will reduce the wear and tear of automobile parts, reduce automobile consumption and reduce the cost of automobile use. To some extent, it can also eliminate automobile exhaust pollution and improve emissions. Nowadays, many automobile products have started to adopt nanotechnology, and small nanometers will make great changes in cars.
One, the car USES plastic rubber.
More and more plastics will be used in automobile manufacturing. Nano-plastics can change the characteristics of traditional plastics and present excellent physical properties: high strength, high heat resistance and smaller proportion. Because nanoparticles are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, nanomaterials can show good transparency and high gloss, and such nanomaterials have a wide range of USES in cars. Some of the materials treated with nanotechnology are 27 times more resistant to wear and seven times more steel.
The use of rubber for cars is the largest. In the production of tire rubber, most of the rubber additives are in powder form, carbon black, white carbon black and other reinforcing filler, promoter, anti-aging agent, etc. In the case of powdery substance, nano-ization is the main development trend at present. Fact, nano materials and rubber industry, namely, relation between original quite closely, are most of the powdered rubber fertilizer particle size in nanometer materials range or close to nano materials, such as carbon black particle size of about 11 ~ 500 nm; The white carbon black particle size is 11 ~ 110nm. The use of nanomaterials in the production of rubber products began in the early 20th century with the use of carbon black reinforcement. In the 1940s, the invention successfully developed nano white carbon black reinforced rubber to make tires. At present, the world famous tire manufacturer gradually USES white carbon black to replace carbon black to make green tires and energy-saving tires, according to the investigation has replaced 5% ~ 10% carbon black.
A new generation of nanotechnology has been successfully used other nanoparticles as additives, and no longer limited in the use of carbon black or white carbon black, ZnO, CaCO3, Al2CO3, TiO2, etc., the biggest change is that the color of the tire is no longer limited to black, and can have a variety of bright colour. Also no matter on the strength, abrasion resistance and anti-aging performance, new nanometer tyre are more than the traditional tire is excellent, such as tire lateral plastic cracking resistance will be increased from 100000 to 500000 times.
In addition, American general motors and monte north American company has successfully developed a new generation of nano plastic material, called polyolefin thermoplastic elastomer, it is a high-performance polyolefin products, into the rubber elasticity at room temperature, with a small density, bending, high low-temperature impact resistance, easy processing, reusable, etc. Polyolefin thermoplastic elastomer in the vehicle application is the biggest potential market to replace polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is applied to large parts, compared with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), in addition to recycling, and long-term uv resistance, colour and lustre is stable, the quality is light, etc. The industry predicts that in the next 20 years, nanoscale composite components will replace the existing automotive plastic products in large quantities, with considerable market potential.
The application of this product in auto parts is quite extensive. It is mainly used for safety rod, radiator, chassis, body outer plate, wheel cover, movable roof and other protective tape, wind shield and so on. In the interior trim, mainly used in the instrument panel and interior panel, airbag material and so on.
There will be more and more plastics. The application of nano material in the plastic is not only the enhancement effect, but also can change the characteristics of traditional plastic, for example, nanometer particle size small, good pervious to light, add to the plastic to make plastic is very dense, plastic brings out the excellent physical properties: high strength, heat resistance is strong, a smaller proportion. Because nanoparticles are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, nano-plastic can show good transparency and high gloss. In addition, the traditional plastic anti-aging performance is poor, affecting its promotion and use. This is because the sun's ultraviolet wavelengths between 200 ~ 400 nm, the band polymer molecular chain rupture easily, thus make the material aging, but as long as add in plastic material can absorb ultraviolet (uv) nanoparticles, which can solve the problem, such as SiO2, TiO2, etc. In all this, it can be seen that nano-plastic is widely used in automobiles.
2. Paint for car painting.
The peeling and aging of the automobile paint is the main factor that causes the automobile to be less beautiful, and the aging is a difficult and difficult variable to control. There are many factors that affect aging in the lacquer that bake, but one of the most critical is the sun's ultraviolet rays, as mentioned in the previous section, uv material molecular chain rupture easily, thus improves the performance of the material aging, polymer plastic so that as the organic coatings. More detailed, because ultraviolet light can cause main film forming material in coating of molecular chain rupture, form a very reactive free radicals, these free radicals to further raise the main film forming material chain decomposition, resulting in coating aging metamorphism. For organic coatings, because uv is the most aggressive of all factors, it can significantly improve the aging resistance of the paint if it can avoid the effect of ultraviolet rays. Currently, the most effective shielding materials for uv radiation are TiO2 nanoparticles.
TiO2 nanoparticles were one of the main nanomaterials developed in the late 1980s. The optical effect of nano TiO2 varies with particle size, especially the nano-rutile type TiO2, which is the most important and the most promising modification material in automotive paint. The shielding of nano TiO2 on ultraviolet ray is mainly scattered, and particle size is one of the important factors affecting the scattering ability. According to the theoretical derivation, the particle size of nano TiO2 is between 65 and 130nm, and its scattering effect on ultraviolet rays is the best.
And nano paint was used to prevent the occurrence of collision small scratches, the carmaker daimlerchrysler announced that since the end of 2003, using a new type of car body spray with nanometer paint, to prevent the occurrence of collision small scratches. After more than four years of developing the nano-paint, the company's researchers can form a dense network of tiny ceramic particles in a painted car. Of 150 cars by test showed that the nano paint not only brightness was 40% higher than the traditional paint, and when the body collisions with other objects slightly, to prevent scratches appear much better performance than the traditional paint. The new paint will be available in a range of cars including mercedes-benz E, S and SLK in the near future, and the new nano paint has been used in all of the company's other cars since 2004.
3. Vehicle exhaust catalyst materials.
With sustained economic growth in developing countries such as China, the global car ownership is rising year by year, and the derivative of the automobile exhaust pollution problem is increasingly serious, has become the governments focus on important topics. It is the main way to solve the automobile exhaust pollution. There are many ways to used in automobile exhaust purification catalysts, and the mainstream is the precious metal platinum, palladium, rhodium, as ternary catalyst, the automobile CO, HC and NOx in the exhaust emissions has the very high catalytic efficiency. But precious metals have :(1) scarce resources, difficult to obtain and expensive; (2) it is easy to have Pb, S and P poisoning, and thus the catalyst failure and other characteristics. Therefore, in the premise of maintaining good transformation effect, it is inevitable that some or all of the precious metals should be replaced.
It is one of the current development trends to replace precious metals with nano-scale rare earth materials. Rare earth elements have unique function and high activity of atomic structure, which can interact with all elements and have unique catalytic effect and properties. Add it to the precious metal catalyst can be greatly increased in the precious metal catalyst can poison resistance, high temperature stability, and at the same time can reduce the dosage of noble metals, so rare earth elements is quite ideal automobile exhaust catalyst or its agent. In addition, because the materials after the nanoparticles has surface and make the material performance mutations such as small size effect, causing other more excellent performance, therefore to rare earth materials, nanoparticles used in automotive catalytic converters will have the effect of other materials cannot compare.
At present, our country has developed a kind of emulsifier made with nano-technology, and with a certain proportion of gasoline, it can reduce the fuel consumption of cars like santana by about 10%. What's more, nanotechnology applications can save a lot of money on fuel cells. Because of nanometer materials at room temperature with excellent hydrogen storage capacity, according to the experimental results, at room temperature under atmospheric pressure, about two-thirds of the hydrogen can be free from these nanomaterials, can need not expensive cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage device.
The chemistry and molecular science academy of wuhan university has made a breakthrough in the research of nano-grade titanium dioxide. Using wuhan university patent technology to produce nano-scale titanium dioxide, the cost is only about a quarter of the cost of foreign countries. The invention of nano-scale titanium dioxide is a new development in the field of titanium dioxide research in the late 1980s. Japanese and American scientists have found that the substance can be widely used in high-end car metal paint. In Japan, photocatalytic plates with nano-scale titanium dioxide are installed on both sides of the highway and in the tunnel. At present, only a few companies in the world can produce nano-scale titanium dioxide.
Comprehensive the above knowable, the future development of automobile technology, great part is closely related to nanotechnology, of course, all parts of the car will be nano, its added value soars necessarily, but in relative terms, the cost and selling price will be greatly increased. So, so far, the real nano - and commercial - car parts are still very limited. But there is no doubt that the automotive industry is an important symbol of modern industry, the application of nanotechnology in the development of future automotive technology will be an inevitable trend, also will become a guarantee of automotive technology upgrading. It is believed that in the near future, nano-technology will be more widely used in automobile manufacturing field.
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