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The Application Of Rare Earth In Laser Crystal
- Mar 15, 2018 -

Laser crystals are composed of crystalline matrix and activated ions. The laser properties of laser crystal have great relationship with crystal substrate and active ion. Currently known laser crystals can be divided into three categories: fluoride crystals, oxygen-containing crystals and oxide crystals. Active ions can be divided into transition metal ions, rare earth ions and actinide ions. Of the approximately 320 laser crystals known, about 290 are doped with rare earths. It can be seen that rare earth plays an important role in developing laser crystal materials.

In rare earth elements, the laser output has been achieved with Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb, with 11 trivalent ions, Sm, Dy and Tm. The laser properties of rare earths are caused by the transition of the 4f electrons of rare earth ions between different energy levels. Because a lot of rare earth ions have abundant energy levels and their 4 f electronic transition, make rare earth indispensable active ion, laser crystal for high and new science and technology provides many superior performance of high power, LD pump and wavelength tunable, new rare earth doped laser crystals. High power doped rare earth laser crystals are mainly doped with yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd: YAG), doped neodymium aluminate (Nd: YAP), aluminum doped gadolinium garnet (Nd: GGG), and neodymium aluminate (Nd: LMA). Among them, Nd: YAG is the most important, the most widely used, the most dosage. Foreign countries have already been engaged in production, in the United States Nd: YAG crystal has been commercialized, new product quality is stable, occupy most of the international market. Tunable laser crystals are also attractive. A tunable ultraviolet laser is obtained from Ce: YLF and Ce: LaF3. Currently the most effective and continuously tuned uv laser crystals are Ce: LiCAF, Ce: LiSAF.

The crystals used in LD pumped laser are mainly Nd: YVO4, Nd: YAG, Nd: YLF, etc., other suitable pump crystal and Yb: YAG, etc. YVO4 and Nd: YVO4 crystals in our country are all well known in the international market. It is estimated that their products now account for l/3 of the international market.

In rare earth activation ion, Nd ion is commonly used, and its output wavelength is 1.06 mu m. For years people have been exploring new wavelengths of laser crystals. Among them, the successful and practical application of laser crystals doped with Er and Ho. The wavelengths of these crystals are safe for the human eye, good for atmospheric transmission, good for the smoke penetration of the battlefield, good privacy, and suitable for military use. Moreover, its wavelength is easily absorbed by water, which is more suitable for laser medical treatment, and it will also be applied in surface dehydration and biological engineering. At present, our country is in favor of Ho: Tm: YAG, Er: YAG and Ho: Er: Tm: YLF has a small batch of trial production capacity, but in the end, batch products are formed.